Chapter 1:  Naming Chemicals

Multiplicity of Names


What is the Formula Behind the Tradename?

Names and Alternative Names of Pharmaceuticals

The Color Index

Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) Colors

Chapter 2: Classification of Chemicals

Classification of Chemicals - What For?

Listing by Chemical Nature - Organic/Inorganic Chemicals

Classification by Price

        Bulk Chemicals

        Specialties: Composition and Performance Chemicals

                Classification by Use

                        Performance Chemicals

                        Composition Chemicals

Fine Chemicals

Chapter 3: Formulations

Performance Chemicals, Formulations and Additives

Developing a Formulation

Periferal Aspects in the Preparation of Formulations

Considerations in Composing a Formulation

        Motor Oil

        Washing Powder

        Baking Powder and Leavening Agents

        Agrochemical Formulations

        Explosives (Dynamite)

        Face Powder (Make-Up)

        Soft Drinks

        Cyanide in Table Salt?! Sugar in Table Salt?!

Chapter 4: Surface Active Materials and Emulsions

Emulsions and Foams - Wanted or Not?
Surface Active Agents
        Structural Characteristics of Surfactants
                Anionic Surfactants
                Cationic Surfactants
                Amphoteric Surfactants
                Non-Ionic Surfactants
        How Does a Surfactant Work?
        Some Unique Physical Properties of Surfactants
                Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance
                Cloud Point
        Preparation of Emulsions
        Emulsion Stability
        Practical Emulsions
        Desirable Processes of Emulsion Breaking
Breaking Up Foam

Chapter 5: Specifications and Standards

The Role of Specifications
The Data Sheet
The Typical Specification of an Industrial Chemical
        Specifications for Composition Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
        Specifications for Food Chemicals
        Specifications for Petroleum Products
        Specifications for Plastic Materials
Special Specific Specifications
        Specifications Related to Physical Properties
                Flash Point
                Density of Liquids
                Density of Solids
                Particle Size
                Caking and Free-Flowing
        Specifications Related to the Purity of the Product
                The Amount of Active Ingredient (Assay)
                Determination of Water
                Loss on Drying
                Salt (or Metal) Impurities
        Standards for Pharmaceuticals
        Standards for Food Additives
        Standards for Laboratory Reagents
        Standards for Electronic Chemicals
        Standards for Plastics
        Standards for Quality Assurance
        European Harmonization

Appendix 1:
A Glossary of Specifications and Test Methods

Chapter 6: The Chemist and Engineering Equipment

Industrial Modus Operandi

Similarity and Difference Between Laboratory and Industrial Equipment

The Choice of Industrial Equipment

The Role of the Chemist in Determination of Production Equipment

Continuous and Batch Processes

Chapter 7: Construction Materials

Relationship Between Construction Materials and the Process

Types of Construction Materials

Relationship Between the Process and Construction Materials

Construction Materials and Quality of the Product

Chapter 8: Scale-up - Scale-down

What Causes the Problem?

The Objectives of the Pilot Plant

        Verification of Process' Feasibility and Locating "Traps"

        Determining Basic Items of Equipment

        Optimization and Determination of Parameters


        Supplying Commercial Samples

        Additional Aims

Where Does Laboratory End and Pilot Plant Begin?

Chapter 9: Work-up

Elements of Work-Up

Separation - of What?

General Guidelines to Work-Up

Appendix 1:
Classes of Separation Processes

Chapter 10: Environmental Impact of Processes and Products

The Problem and the Dilemma

Prevention of Air Pollution

Prevention of Water Pollution

Handling of Solid Wastes

Waste Minimization in Existing Processes

Waste Minimization in the Development of a New Product/Process

        All That is Not Product is Waste

        Sources of Wastes in a Chemical Process

Chapter 11: Safety and Regulations

The Evolution of Awareness


        General Concepts



        Static Electricity



Regulatory Organizations

        Occupational Safety and Health

        Environmental Protection


        Fire Protection

        Food and Drugs


Introduction of New Chemical Substances

Risk Groups and Criteria for Classification

        The DOT, IMDG, IATA Classification Systems

        The NFPA System

        European R&S Phrases


Safety Considerations in Developing a Process

        Chemical Process Hazard

        Safety of Different Reaction Types

        Choosing a Chemical Procedure

        Water - Friend or Foe?

        Impurities - A Sign of Warning


Appendix 1: EEC Minimum Premanufacturing Data Set

Appendix 2: IMDG and IATA Criteria for Classification of Hazards of Chemicals

Appendix 3: The DOT Classification System

Appendix 4: The NFPA Coding System

Appendix 5: Incompatible Chemicals


Chapter 12: Patents

Protection of Intellectual Property

A Contract Between Inventor and Society

A Patentable Invention

From the History of the Patent System


The Patent Document

Who is the Inventor?

Patent Ownership

The Description and Language of the Patent Claims

Patents as a Source of Information

Market-Pull or Technology-Push

A Small World

Chapter 13: Information

The Need for Information for Industrial Development

Technical/Scientific Information

Commercial Information for R&D


        Computerized Data Bases

        Government and Other Publications